Project

Totems

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Totems video

Melanin-infused columns

Research team: Sunanda Sharma, Christoph Bader, Rachel Soo Hoo Smith, Felix Kraemer, João Costa, Joseph H. Kennedy Jr, Nitzan Zilberman (curation). Undergraduate researchers: Joseph Faraguna, Sangita Vasikaran, Sara Laura Wilson. Prof. Neri Oxman.

Year: 2019

Location: MoMA. 2020. New York, NY

Platform: Hybrid Living Materials & Data Driven Material Modeling

This project addresses and speculates upon designers’ ability to chemically synthesize the ‘pigment of life’—as a functional material—and program its interaction across scales and species for the betterment of biodiversity.

Position

Biodiversity on planet Earth is under momentous threat, with extinction rates estimated at between 100 and 1,000 times their pre-human levels. The Mediated Matter Group has been in search of materials and chemical substances that can sustain and enhance biodiversity across living systems and have so far endured the perils of climate change.

Melanin—a naturally occurring chemical chain that gives all living things their pigmentation—is one such substance that can sustain and enhance biodiversity at the genetic, species and ecosystem levels.

Melanin's Age in Millions of Years

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A biomarker of evolution, melanin is the color of life. The substance that defines the color of skin, hair and eyes is at once ancient and modern: melanin is found in fossils dating from the Mesozoic Era, and today can be chemically synthesized with modern techniques. It is one of the most resistant, heterogeneous, and pervasive pigments found across the kingdoms of life. In addition to its critical role in providing protection from ultraviolet radiation, it serves a wide variety of functions: mechanical protection, energy harvesting, cell growth, metal binding, thermal regulation, and protection from oxidative stress.

An identifying feature of all living organisms, melanin represents unity in the diversity of life on earth and is clearly linked to biological survival throughout the ages. Its value for human health and culture across regions and environments is priceless. Today, it is considered by some to be more valuable than gold, and its impact—in the age of climate change—is key to human survival on Earth.

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Melanin infused 3D printed prototype
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Microbial melanin synthesis

Process

Melanin can be synthesized through a reaction between an enzyme from a mushroom, called tyrosinase, and the protein building block L-tyrosine. The pigment can be extracted from bird feathers and cuttlefish ink amongst other sources, then purified and filtered in a series of steps.

The genes for melanin production can also be engineered into bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli, and thereby controlled over space and time in response to changes in the environment. For instance, its coloration could deepen as the sun reaches its peak, providing protection from solar radiation.

Totems Material Tunability 720p Frame
Material-based induction and tunability of melanin synthesis
Totems Chemical Tunability 720p Frame
Chemistry-based induction and tunability of melanin synthesis
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Advection diffusion during reaction of melanin
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Tunability of advection diffusion of melanin
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Modeled chemical synthesis of melanin
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Templated melanin synthesis reaction in dynamic 3D printed vessels
The technical goal is to explain, predict and demonstrate how melanin can be generated on-demand for the purpose of biological and environmental augmentation.

Platform

Over the past year we developed methods for the design of structures that can contain biological substances across scales (from micro to macro) and phases (solids and liquids). As part of the basic research behind Totems, we created a series of spherical objects featuring a single connected channel filled with liquid melanin. These spheres display a wide range of colors and absorption spectra, from light yellow to dark brown.

The channels within these spheres have been computationally ‘grown,’ 3D printed and biologically augmented to create pockets for the liquid melanin to reside, with channel diameters ranging from millimeters to centimeters.

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Channels of melanin extracted from six terrestrial species
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Liquid eumelanin (dark) infusion into computationally grown and 3D printed channels
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Liquid pheomelanin (light) infusion into computationally grown and 3D printed channels
These melanin-infused columns contain age-old organisms activating them as ‘windows’ designed to provide protection from, connection to, and transformation of sunlight.

The installation designed for the exhibition, Broken Nature: Design Takes on Human Survival as part of the XXII Triennale di Milano exhibition (2019), features a column-based demonstration of melanin production on an architectural scale for deployment in specific environmental contexts. It is comprised of a totem—a spirit being, sacred object, or symbol that serves as an emblem of the Tree of Life.

The research at the core of this work fuses digital fabrication, design computation and chemical reaction dynamics, resulting in a ‘chemical totem’ that illustrates how the process for melanin formation can be embodied inside a product.

Within each structure, ‘a biological totem’ is initiated with the introduction of tyrosinase, an enzyme that is light-sensitive, leading to color formation that continues over the span of a day, deepening as the sun reaches its zenith and easing into lighter hues as the sun sets.

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Liquid pheomelanin (light) infusion into computationally grown and 3-D printed channels. Photo: Denis Doorly. Courtesy of the Museum of Modern Art, New York
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Channels and spatial pockets for melanin infusion range from mm to cm scale
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Active proteins are included for light sensitive dynamic pigmentation
A first-of-its-kind biologically augmented façade, the structure is designed to protect endangered species on site and to enhance the diversity of life on our planet.

In parallel, we have developed an architectural proposal for an environmentally responsive, melanin-infused glass structure.

It is designed to contain multiple types of melanin, naturally obtained on site and biologically synthesized at the Lab. It provides UV protection during the day while enabling stargazing at sunset.

Totems Topographic Study
Topographical studies for placement of Totems
Totems Architectural Pavilion
Proposal for an architectural pavilion
Totems Mandela Study
Chemical, geometric, thermal, material components
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Architectural proposal for an environmentally responsive melanin-infused structure. Image: Luxigon
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Architectural proposal for an environmentally responsive melanin-infused structure. Image: Luxigon
What are the biological and cultural implications of these new capabilities?

Policy

The installation investigates the long and crucial intersection between culture and nature by questioning the dichotomy between the societal and biological roles associated with designers’ abilities to engineer melanin’s expressions within and across species. Through this investigation, we question our ongoing relationship with biology and natural history.

The architectural proposal is part of a long-term project initiated by Ravi Naidoo of Interactive Africa and was first introduced by Neri Oxman and The Mediated Matter Group at Design Indaba, 2018.

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Color range indicates property combinations such as absorption spectra
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Extracted melanin vial display
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Architectural proposal for an environmentally responsive melanin-infused structure. Image: Luxigon.

Credits

Collaborators & Contributors: Natalia Casa, Eric de Broche des Combes (Luxigon), Kelly Egorova, Osvaldo Golijov, Gianluca di Ioia, Dechuan Meng, Hans Martin Pech; Prof. Christopher Voigt; Susan Williams; Stratasys, Ltd; Front Inc; Bodino; MIT Media Lab

Acknowledgments: NOE, LLC.; Design Indaba; The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; Estée Lauder; GETTYLAB; The XXII Triennale di Milano; MIT Media Lab

Designed for Broken Nature: Design Takes On Human Survival, XXII Triennale di Milano, 2019, organized by Paola Antonelli 3D printed by Stratasys Ltd.

All images and videos courtesy Neri Oxman and The Mediated Matter Group, unless indicated otherwise

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